Innovative Waterfront Applications of Concrete Bulkheads for Marine Terminals
This paper describes a series of innovative applications of concrete bulkheads and concrete wall-type elements in marine terminal projects. The successful implementation of concrete bulkhead and concrete wall-type solutions in marine projects relies heavily on adequate characterization of site conditions, proper modeling of the soil-structure interaction, and the definition of boundary and loading conditions. Provisions for the analysis and design of concrete bulkheads in the United States are scarce, usually extrapolated from steel bulkhead design guidelines, which may lead to voids on specific technical matters, including the modeling of soil-structure interaction and the design to address flexure and shear force demands on the bulkhead and wall-type structures. The goal of this paper is to fill in this gap by listing a series of recommendations related to key aspects of analysis, design, and construction of concrete bulkheads and concrete wall-type elements based on their successful application in marine terminal projects worldwide.