Developing Load Factors for Berthing Loads Based on Monte Carlo Modeling and Statistical Analysis
The design of fender-supporting structures requires proper application of load and safety factors in consideration of berthing velocities, abnormal berthing conditions, manufacturer tolerances, fender performance, etc. Current codes and guidelines remain inconsistent and unclear on how each consideration should be incorporated, resulting in inconsistent, overly-conservative, or at worst, unsafe designs. This paper applies Monte Carlo statistical modeling to examine fender reaction forces resulting from berthing velocity data. Engineers can use the resulting distribution of reaction forces to develop safe and acceptable load factors to design supporting structures to fit target reliabilities similar to those found in ASCE 7.